Metal industry extracts the cast iron from pig iron by melting it with coke and limestone. Pig iron is a raw impure iron which is obtained from the iron ore. Cast iron bars and other parts are used for several application including building structures, sanitary fittings, casting molds, chairs, etc.
How cast iron is made?
Manufacturers re-melt the cast iron inside the couple furnace. This type of furnace has a height of 5 meters and shaped cylindrical with 1 meter diameter. They include three raw materials for preparation of cast iron –
- Pig iron
All of these three materials are entered from the charging door of the chamber at the top. Through air blast inlet, air blast is introduced that eliminates the contaminants present in the pig iron. The purified cast iron is passed through the bottom outlet and then poured into shaping molds. Professionals name these molds as cast iron castings.
Do you know? There are over 5 types of cast iron used by construction industry as building material. Let’s learn about them-
1. Grey cast iron – Grey colored cast iron has coarse crystalline structure. The melting of grey cast iron is lower and this is why it has poor strength properties. Professionals working in construction sector use this cast iron type for casting purposes only.
2. Malleable cast iron – Malleability is among other properties that allow the materials to mold in any shape without cracking or breaking. Malleable cast iron possesses good malleability properties which make them suitable for making distinct types of materials. The metal has good corrosive resistance.
Malleable cast iron manufacturing is a two-step process that includes-
- It is casted and cooled normally as a usual cast iron
- It is then heated to 1050 degrees Celsius and soaked in water for several hours or days.
This process helps in making cast iron less brittle. This type of cast iron is used for making fastenings, pipe fittings, automobiles, etc.
3. Mottled cast iron – This cast iron type has mix properties of grey cast iron and white cast iron. Mottled cast iron contains small amount of graphite in its composition.
4. Toughened cast iron – This cast iron type is the combo of cast iron and wrought iron.
5. White cast iron – It has silver color and high melting point. This cast iron type is heavy in weight and cannot be used often.
6. Ductile cast iron – This cast iron type is also known by the name of spheroidal graphite iron. The manufacturing process involves manganese treatment that enhances the carbon content and prevents development of flaky graphite.
Among all the cast iron types, ductile iron is vastly used due to its great corrosion resistance, high strength, and durability. Manufacturing companies use ductile iron to produce sewer pipes, water conveying pipes, etc. They also provide cast iron bars to construction sector for building structures and other projects.
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